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52 सप्ताह हेतु कृषि कार्यों की रुपरेखा
भूमि उपयोग के तरीके
अन्य उपयोगी लिंक
कृषि मोबाइल पोर्टल
Rice:- Seed Sowing

Introduction | Varieties | Soil Requirement | Seed Sowing 
Nutrient management | Water management | Weed management | Insect pests and Diseases management 
harvesting and post harvest management | Miscellaneous

Agronomic Practices
There are two main methods of rice cultivation -

  1. Transplanting method:
    The transplanting method is feasible in those areas where sufficient assured water exists. In this method, first the nursery is raised and then seedlings are transplanted in puddled fields when they are 15-20 cm tall and have developed 4-5 leaves.

    Selection of Seed : Properly filled seeds should be selected for sowing. For selecting such seeds, dissolve 2.5 kg common salt in 25 L water and dip 3.7 kg seed at the time in this solution and discard the seeds floating on the surface. Wash and dry the healthy seeds well. 25-35 kg seed is sufficient for transplanting one hectare area.

    Seed Treatment : Treat the dry seeds with Bavistin (1:400) against seed borne diseases. 2.5g of chemical is required for 1 kg seeds. The treatment can be given in a rotating drum or putting the seed in a container and shaking it well after adding chemical.

    Nursery Raising
    Success in getting high yields of rice lies in raising healthy sturdy and uniform seedlings. The nursery can be grown by dry of wet methods as described below :

    • Dry method : Prepare fine raised seed-bed 10 cm high of 8x1.25 m dimension. Apply 65 g urea and 150 g superphosphate per bed and mix it thoroughly in the upper 5 cm layer of the bed. Sow 400 g good quality treated seeds on each bed, preferably in rows 10 cm apart. Cover the seed with a fine layer of soil. 20-30 kg well rotten FYM should be properly mixed in soil per bed before the incorporation of urea and superphosphate.
      Another dose of 45 g urea per bed may be applied a fortnight after sowing so as to get the seedlings ready for transplanting in about 25-30 days. 4 such seed beds will be required for transplanting on bigha. 
      Keeping the nursery free of weeds, irrigate it regularly. If the seedlings in the nursery show yellowing of leaves, spray it with 0.5% ferrous sulphate solution after adding unsalked lime equal to half the weight of ferrous sulphate.
      For weed control in rice nursery, spray Oxadiazon (Ronstar) @ 4 L/ha after 14 days of sowing. This herbicide results in temporary phytotoxic effect on the rice seedlings but the plants recover afterwards. Spray of Thiobencarb (Saturn) or Butachlor (Machete) @ 2 L/ha 7 days after sowing also controls the weeds effectively.

    • Wet method : After incorporating farm yard manure in soil at the rate of 20-30 kg per bed of 8x1.25 m size, flood the field and puddle it well. Leave the puddle for 2 to 3 days as such. Prepare raised seed-beds 20 cm high of 8x1.25 m size with 1/3 m water channel in between the two rows of beds. All the practices after this are the same as for dry method except that instead of dry seed, the pre-germinated seeds is used in this nursery raising method. To obtain the pre-germinated seed, soak seed for 24 hours in water and keep it in dark room for 36 to 48 hours.

    Time of Nursery Sowing : 
    The nursery should be sown 4 weeks before the time of transplanting. The schedule for nursery raising is given below :-

    Tall and dwarf varieties : 20 May to 7 June
    Basmati varieties : 15 May to 30 May

    Field preparation

    1. Repair all bunds.
    2. Incorporate all the organic matter about two weeks ahead of transplanting by ploughing the field to enable decomposition. Begin puddling about 2-3 days before transplanting.
    3. Work the field into a soft puddle. This will help minimise losses due to percolation of water.
    4. Uniformly level the fields before application of fertilizers.
    5. Apply all phosphorus, potassium and 1/2 nitrogen prior to the last puddling operation not more than 1-3 days before transplanting.

    Uprooting of seedlings
    The seed-bed should be irrigated a day before uprooting of the seedlings. The seedlings should be pulled gently so that the roots are not injured.

    Method of transplanting

    1. Transplant the seedlings in rows, not more than 3 cm deep.
    2. Transplant 2-3 seedlings per hill.
    3. Space seedlings 15 cm x 20 cm for normal planting and 15 cm x 15 cm for late planting in case of tall varieties. Transplant at 15 cm x 15 cm for both normal and late plantings in case of dwarf varieties.
    4. Fill the gaps twice, 5 and 10 days after transplanting.
    5. Keep the water standing in the field to cover about two third length of the transplanted seedlings for 5 days after transplanting. This help in proper establishment of the seedlings.
    1. Transplanting over-age seedlings
    2. Deep transplanting and wide spacing as these affect the yield adversely.
    3. On uneven field.

    Time of transplanting
    Tall and dwarf varieties: 15 June to 7 July
    Basmati varieties: 20 June to 1 July

    Interculture and weed control
    The puddling of field and proper water management destroys many weeds and saves the crop from the first flush of weeds for about two weeks after transplanting. The weeds appear thereafter and should be controlled. Use of paddy weeder or hand weeding can help in controlling weeds but the effective, easy and better method is through chemical control.

    1. Machete 5% granules @ 30 kg/ha in 4-5 cm standing water or Machete 50 EC @ 3 L in 150 kg sand and broadcast in one hectare after 3-4 days of sowing in standing water.
    2. Stomp 5% granules @ 30 kg/ha or Stomp 30 EC @ 4 L/ha after 4-5 days of transplanting also effectively controls weeds.
    3. Broadcast application of Saturn 10% granules @ 20 kg/ha or Saturn 50 EC @ L/ha after 4-5 days of transplanting gives excellent weed control.
    4. Goal sprayed @ 600 ml/ha after 4-5 days of transplanting or 1% granules @ 15 kg/ha also effectively controls the weeds.
    5. If majority of the weeds comprises of nut sedge (Cyperus spp.) and broad leaved weeds, apply 2,4-DEE 4% granules @ 20 kg/ha after 4-5 days of transplanting.
    6. Butachlor should be applied within 48 hr of sowing of rice as pre-emergence under proper moisture conditions.

    Note : In case of light textured soils, reduce the dose of herbicides by 25%.
    Precaution : Use hand gloves while applying machete or mixing with sand.

  2. Direct sowing method
    In this method, the seeds of paddy are sown directly in the fields and nursery is not raised. This method is also of two types :
    • Direct sowing of pre-sprouted seeds in puddled field
    • Direct sowing of unsprouted seed in unpuddled soil

    The first method is locally called as Machch method and practised in those areas where water is available for puddling. Transplanting, however, gives significantly higher yields than this method. The farmers are, therefore, advised to adopt transplanting method where water is available.

    In the second method of direct sowing, the dry seeds of paddy are sown directly in the field either after onset of monsoon or even before that in dry soils. This is adopted in those fields which are unpland and assured supply of water is not available. Due to lack of proper water management, the yield of such rice is very low. As a preference, such lands should be put under maize for better return. However, if rice is to be grown on such lands, the following guidelines should be followed to increase the yield.

    Weed control : In direct seeded rice, weed control is very important and only timely control can result in better production. The first weeding at 2-3 leaf stage is more critical and must be done. Thereafter, weeding should be done as and when required.

Land preparation: Prepare the land thoroughly by first ploughing with furrow turning plough and desi plough afterwards. The soil shoul dbe firable and sufficient moisture should be ensure at the time of sowing.

Sowing time : The sowing time of direct seeded rice is the same when nursery for transplanted rice is grown. Late sowing results into lesser yields. Generally, sowing should be done with the first rain.

Method of sowing : In this method, 100-125 kg seed per hectare is required. The seed should be sown in rows at 20 cm spacing behind the plough at a depth of 3-4 cm for better plant population and quick emergence. Broadcast method is not recommended as it gives very poor yield.

Package of Practice

Introduction | Varieties | Soil Requirement | Seed Sowing 
Nutrient management | Water management | Weed management | Insect pests and Diseases management 
harvesting and post harvest management | Miscellaneous
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Visitor No.: 08908618   Last Updated: 13 Jan 2016